Frequently Asked Questions
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The key to a successful organic lawn program is the soil. It must be alive with wide variety of beneficial microorganisms and bugs. Beneficial microbes both feed and protect the plants from other, disease-causing bacteria and fungi. All the organic gardener does is feed the beneficial microbes and let them do their work. Beneficial microorganisms include bacteria and fungi found in finished compost. There are two ways to get the benefit from compost. The best way to get a complete dose of beneficial microbes is by including finished compost in the soil preparation before laying seed or sod. Preparing the ground right beforehand is preferred to applying after the grass is established.
Plans for a new lawn should specify that compost be mixed with the top 4 inches of top soil, half-and-half, when the land is renovated for grass seed or sod planting. This insures that the microbes will be in the root zone as the grass seed germinates. However, if your lawn is already established and you want to go organic, you can add compost to the lawn as a top dressing. This means physically dropping compost on top of the turf and then sweeping it off the grass plants and onto the soil where the microbes will be washed into the soil. A careful watering of the lawn after the application of compost will hasten this process. Care must be taken to avoid topping with too much compost. See the question below about this technique and recommendations to avoid smothering the existing lawn. Many other issues are important to the success of an organic lawn.
Watering, fertilizing, mowing and weeding programs are all vital and the reader is encouraged to study this FAQ regarding each of these topics. Success is also closely related to the choice of grass selected for the lawn. Choice of grass is outside the scope of this FAQ. For more information about soil microbes go to soilfoodweb.com and read everything you can find or search the Internet for “The Soil Biology Primer.”
Spread it around in piles on the lawn with a wheelbarrow. Sling it from the piles onto the grass with a shovel. Then use a push broom to sweep it off the grass blades and down into the turf. Water it in to activate the compost microbes and wash them onto your soil. Apply compost at a rate of no more than 1 cubic yard per 1,000 square feet. This results in a thin layer about 1/3 inch deep when spread out uniformly.
Commercial organic dry fertilizers, such as Epsoma, Ringers, Greensense, and Texas Tee, are protein based and must be digested by soil microbes before the nitrogen becomes available to the roots. The ingredients of these commercial fertilizers include ground corn, feather meal, alfalfa, cottonseed, corn gluten meal, soy, and other grains. Any ground seed or bean is good as an organic fertilizer including used coffee grounds. You can often find these same ingredients in bulk form at farm or feed stores. A good application rate for these grain based fertilizers is 10-20 pounds per 1,000 square feet. Organic fertilizer may be applied any day, any time of day, rain or shine, and at any amount without fear of hurting the turf. Give it 3 weeks for the microbes to process the protein before the benefit is seen in the grass. After 200 years of an NPK mentality toward fertility, university researchers are just now returning to study soil microbes and protein based microbe food. Not much has been published. Try Brown University. Otherwise industry and consumers are leading the way on protein fertilizers. Check out soilfoodweb.com and attra.org (search for alternative soil amendments).
Commercial brands can be found at organic garden supply stores and at some farm and feed stores. The commercial brands might go as high as $30 for a 30 pound bag. A typical retail price for 50 pounds of bulk alfalfa pellets or corn meal is $5-$7 at a farm/feed store. Call around as prices will vary depending on the availability in your area.
Logically you would think so, but it doesn’t seem to. You will likely have more birds, but they eat caterpillars and insects and leave their manure behind; so I’m okay with that.
It is possible but it shouldn’t unless it is overused. The microbes should prevail unless you never feed the microbes again. Although chemical ferts are salts, they have no sodium in them. Sodium is the culprit in almost all “salt” problems.
Chemical fertilizers provide an “empty” type of food directly to the plants. This is like the empty calories we get from eating pure sugar. Microbes and plants have evolved together over the past 200 million years to provide full service to the plants. They decompose dead plant and animal residues to humus; combine nitrogen and carbon to prevent nutrient loss; suppress disease; produce plant growth regulators; develop soil structure, tilth, and water penetration/retention; clean up chemical residues; shift soil pH toward neutral; retrieve nutrients from distant parts of the soil; decompose thatch; and control nitrogen supply to the plants according to need. Besides that, nobody knows what the 70% of unlisted stuff is in the chemical bag that is not fertilizer.
Watering should be done in the mornings. Deep infrequent watering encourages roots to penetrate deeper into the soil. Watering in the evening encourages pathogenic fungus disease so try not to let the grass blades have water on them after dark.
Never use fresh manure directly on your turf. You may use composted manure, but compost that has many other ingredients makes a better compost. The mistaken use of fresh manure is one of the main reasons people get turned off by an organic program.
Many people use compost every year. I believe if you never do any harm to your microbes and keep them well fed with protein, you never need compost on a lawn. The answer probably lies somewhere in between. If you have had a flood or a turf disease, you should reapply some compost.
Getting started is as easy as stopping the use of chemicals. You can easily replenish the microbes with a thin layer of compost. The next thing to do is start using protein based fertilizers like corn meal, alfalfa meal, coffee grounds, soy meal, cottonseed meal, sorghum meal, or what ever you can get inexpensively at your local feed supply store.
Spring: Any time before your grass starts to turn lush in the spring, apply a protein based fertilizer at 10-20 pounds per 1,000 square feet. Water it in when you want to.
Summer: Leave it alone. Water in the morning once per week with enough water to get one inch per week in most zones.
Fall: About 3 weeks before your grass stops growing, apply a protein based fertilizer at 20 pounds per 1,000 square feet.
You shouldn’t have to do any mechanical aerating if you follow an organic program. Soil microbes will silently till and aerate your soil for you. As your soil develops tilth from the microbes digging for you, the soil will become softer and retain more water from each watering.
Thatch is not a problem in organic lawns. Beneficial soil microbes eat thatch. There is no need to collect grass clippings with the lawn mower and fall leaves should be chopped and mulched right back into the turf.
First make sure it is not just dormant. If it is not dormant and you have been watering regularly, you likely have a turf disease or an insect problem. Many lawn diseases are fungus related. If you suspect you have a fungus, the organic solution is to fight the pathogenic fungus with beneficial fungus. The Trichoderma (try ko DER ma) fungus eats the pathogenic fungi. Trichoderma grows especially well on whole ground corn meal. Apply corn meal at 10-20 pounds per 1,000 square feet. A thin layer of compost will help replenish the beneficial microbes which may have been killed off by the disease microbes. The other possibility is you have insect damage. Grubs or grub worms are the larvae of various beetles including the June bug. When you see beetles flying around your lights at night, it’s time to spray beneficial nematodes on the turf. Beneficial nematodes bring a disease to insect larvae. See more later in this FAQ. Two good references for further information can be found at the Texas A&M University at Stephenville (search for Peanut Disease and Nematode Control Recommendations) and look for the T-22 Seed Treatment at Agstore.net.
If you used protein in the spring, you probably do not need nitrogen. If you need iron, glauconite, packaged as greensand, will turn your lawn green again. When applied at 40 pounds per 1,000 square feet, it seems to keep grass green when other lawns turn yellow. The iron in greensand is not immediately available to plants, so once again you have to wait for the microbes to process it. This takes a week or two.
Beneficial nematodes are parasites for the all the pests listed. They come on a sponge which is wrung out into a bucket of water. The water is then sprayed on the lawn. For more info on beneficial nematodes, look at the University of Connecticut, University of Florida, Washington State University, Oklahoma State University, Cornell University, Texas A&M University, and many other university websites and search for beneficial nematodes. These beneficial nematodes must not be confused with root-knot nematodes or other bad guys.
You can certainly have your soil tested. Ask them to check for organic materials and microbe species counts. Most soil tests focus on pH and the amount of chemical fertilizer residue there is immediately available for the plants.
In many cases nothing needs to be done. No matter which side of neutral your soil is on, soil microbial action tends to move the pH to neutral near 7.0. If you are extremely acid (not normal in Texas) you could use lime to help the microbes along.
Deep watering encourages the deep rooted grass. Infrequent watering discourages shallow rooted weeds. Mowing high discourages weed seeds from sprouting. Keeping the grass dense is a priority – Bermuda will be denser if it is mowed low. Mow weeds off or hand pick. Never let weeds go to seed. The WeedHound is an excellent tool against dandelions and can be found at Target for $20. It literally plucks them out of the ground as fast as you can step on them. For spot application on pure weeds, many people have reported great success with 20% vinegar sprayed as a foliar spray, not a soil drench. Vinegar can be found at organic garden shops and feed stores. To a gallon of vinegar, mix a tablespoon of liquid dish soap and two tablespoons of molasses as wetting agents. A few ounces of orange oil per gallon is reported to improve the mix over the plain vinegar. Apply full strength from a hand sprayer. Be very careful not to get any spray on you or in your eyes or inhale it. The smell will go away in 15 minutes. 20% vinegar will be the most hazardous thing you use in organic gardening. You can find more info about vinegar as an herbicide at usda.gov and search for vinegar.
There is an organic fertilizer that acts like a preemergent seed controller. That product is corn gluten meal (CGM). Do not use CGM if you are reseeding or trying to grow grass from seed. The only problem with CGM is the cost in most parts of the country. Prices range from $3 – $40 for a 50 pound sack depending on where you live. Apply at up to 40 pounds per 1,000 square feet. For more info go to iastate.edu and search for corn gluten meal. CGM is a powerful organic nitrogen fertilizer so stand back when you apply.
Compost piles never smell bad if they are properly managed. For more on compost, I’ll post another FAQ.
No it doesn’t. Fresh manure stinks, but manure is not supposed to be used directly on anything. Anything that stinks should be composted for several months or until it stops stinking.
No. Aerobic composting with a good heat cycle kills off the disease causing microbes in the compost. If compost smells sour, rotten, rancid, or bad in any way, it is not finished cooking. Fluff it up to let more air in and let it sit for another few weeks. Read more about disease suppression at www.soilfoodweb.com.
Compost is not a very good fertilizer all by itself. Compost is a great soil surface amendment used primarily to bring beneficial soil microbes to your soil. If you want a thick, green turf grass, you need to add protein to feed the soil microbes. The microbes, in turn, will feed the grass.
Following a full organic program should cost less than a chemical program. The first application of compost can be expensive, but it is not always needed. Still it is important to look at the longer term. Protein fertilizer costs about the same per square foot as chemical fertilizer. The reason the organic program is less expensive is the fact that you won’t need expensive herbicides, pesticides, or fungicides.
It is possible and happens to people who get bad advice about applying compost and manure. Unfortunately you can easily smother many grasses by putting too much compost on. That is why the recommended rate is 1 cubic yard of compost for every 1,000 square feet. This will result in application of 1/3 inch of compost if spread out uniformly – a very thin layer. The overuse of compost on turf is one of the main reasons people get discouraged by an organic program.
This cannot happen unless you use enough to smother the grass. Protein fertilizer must be eaten by the soil microbes before the grass gets any benefit. With an organic program, nothing goes to waste and nothing is washed away. Blood meal is an exception to this rule. I never recommend using blood meal for anything. It’s a good protein source, but it is “hot.” Since other products work as well, I just leave it alone.
Not really and we are thankful for that. Chemical weed and feed products are not very well designed. Refer back to the question about the preemergent for information about corn gluten meal.